Kiwifruit vine decline syndrome (KVDS) is an emerging challenge related to various factors, including water stagnation, soil compaction, root hypoxia, imbalanced soil redox potential, soil nutrient imbalance and fungal pathogens, yet its definitive causes remain unconfirmed. This study compared soils and roots of healthy plants (CTRL group) and plants affected by KVDS (KVDS group) at a kiwifruit orchard (Actinidia chinensis cv. ‘Zesy002’) in Sermoneta (Lazio region), Italy. Our findings indicate that soil redox potential, a parameter related to soil oxidation, and soil macroporosity were significantly lower in the KVDS soils. The water table was also found to be higher in the KVDS block of the orchard, demonstrating a higher soil water content. This suggests less aeration and more water content in KVDS-affected soils compared to the control. Root analyses showed that KVDS led to browning and decomposition of rhizodermis, decay of the central stele, detachment of the cortex, reduced cell size and the presence of starch granules in the parenchyma, with significant variations in root morphometric parameters. To mitigate KVDS, sustainable agronomic practices, including precision irrigation, green manure, compost addition and water drainage root pruning, were carried out on some KVDS-symptomatic vines (SUST group). Molecular analyses revealed the presence of 10 fungal species from treated root plants, with Paraphaeosphaeria michotii, Fusarium oxysporum and Ilyonectria vredenhoekensis being frequently isolated from symptomatic KVDS-affected plants but less from SUST plants. Also, Beauveria bassiana and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, showed an effect against I. vredenhoekensis and P. michotii, and may be suitable candidates as biocontrol agents. The adoption of sustainable agronomic practices resulted in significantly more healthy plants (46% increase) by the end of the trial, demonstrating that a sustainable soil use and water management at kiwifruit orchards can mitigate KVDS through restoration of natural growth conditions.

Enhancing soil properties through sustainable agronomic practices reduced the occurrence of kiwifruit vine decline syndrome

Sofo, Adriano;Dichio, Bartolomeo;Elshafie, Hazem S.;Camele, Ippolito;Calabritto, Maria;Xylogiannis, Evangelos;D'Ippolito, Ilaria;Mininni, Alba N.
2024-01-01

Abstract

Kiwifruit vine decline syndrome (KVDS) is an emerging challenge related to various factors, including water stagnation, soil compaction, root hypoxia, imbalanced soil redox potential, soil nutrient imbalance and fungal pathogens, yet its definitive causes remain unconfirmed. This study compared soils and roots of healthy plants (CTRL group) and plants affected by KVDS (KVDS group) at a kiwifruit orchard (Actinidia chinensis cv. ‘Zesy002’) in Sermoneta (Lazio region), Italy. Our findings indicate that soil redox potential, a parameter related to soil oxidation, and soil macroporosity were significantly lower in the KVDS soils. The water table was also found to be higher in the KVDS block of the orchard, demonstrating a higher soil water content. This suggests less aeration and more water content in KVDS-affected soils compared to the control. Root analyses showed that KVDS led to browning and decomposition of rhizodermis, decay of the central stele, detachment of the cortex, reduced cell size and the presence of starch granules in the parenchyma, with significant variations in root morphometric parameters. To mitigate KVDS, sustainable agronomic practices, including precision irrigation, green manure, compost addition and water drainage root pruning, were carried out on some KVDS-symptomatic vines (SUST group). Molecular analyses revealed the presence of 10 fungal species from treated root plants, with Paraphaeosphaeria michotii, Fusarium oxysporum and Ilyonectria vredenhoekensis being frequently isolated from symptomatic KVDS-affected plants but less from SUST plants. Also, Beauveria bassiana and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, showed an effect against I. vredenhoekensis and P. michotii, and may be suitable candidates as biocontrol agents. The adoption of sustainable agronomic practices resulted in significantly more healthy plants (46% increase) by the end of the trial, demonstrating that a sustainable soil use and water management at kiwifruit orchards can mitigate KVDS through restoration of natural growth conditions.
2024
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11563/178817
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