Background: Several pre-clinical and clinical reports suggest that HIV-1 protease inhibitors, in addition to the antiretroviral properties, possess pleiotropic pharmacological effects including anti-cancer action. Therefore, we investigated the pro-apoptotic activity in tumor cells of two molecules, RDD-19 and RDD-142, which are hydroxyethylamine derivatives’ precursors of darunavir and several HIV-1 protease inhibitors. Methods: Three hepatoma cell lines and one non-pathological cell line were treated with RDD-19 and RDD-142, and cell viability was assessed. The expression levels of several markers for ER stress, autophagy, cellular ubiquitination, and Akt activation were quantified in HepG2 cells treated with RDD-19 and RDD-142 to evaluate apoptotic and non-apoptotic cell death. Results: RDD-19 and RDD-142 showed a greater dose-dependent cytotoxicity towards the hepatic tumor cell line HepG2 compared to the non-pathological hepatic cell line IHH. Both molecules caused two types of cell death, a caspase-dependent apoptosis, which was ascertained by a series of biochemical and morphological assays, and a caspase-independent death that was characterized by the induction of ER stress and autophagy. The strong increase of ubiquitinated proteins inside the cells suggested that the target of these molecules could be the proteasome and in silico molecular docking analysis that was used to support the plausibility of this hypothesis. Furthermore, cells treated with the two compounds displayed decreased levels of p-AKT, which interferes with cell survival and proliferation. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that two compounds, RDD-19 and RDD-142, have pleiotropic effects and that they may represent promising anticancer candidates.

Two novel precursors of the hiv-1 protease inhibitor darunavir target the UPR/proteasome system in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2

Rinaldi R.;Miglionico R.;Nigro I.;D'orsi R.;Chiummiento L.;Funicello M.;Lupattelli P.;Monne M.;Bisaccia F.;Armentano M. F.
2021

Abstract

Background: Several pre-clinical and clinical reports suggest that HIV-1 protease inhibitors, in addition to the antiretroviral properties, possess pleiotropic pharmacological effects including anti-cancer action. Therefore, we investigated the pro-apoptotic activity in tumor cells of two molecules, RDD-19 and RDD-142, which are hydroxyethylamine derivatives’ precursors of darunavir and several HIV-1 protease inhibitors. Methods: Three hepatoma cell lines and one non-pathological cell line were treated with RDD-19 and RDD-142, and cell viability was assessed. The expression levels of several markers for ER stress, autophagy, cellular ubiquitination, and Akt activation were quantified in HepG2 cells treated with RDD-19 and RDD-142 to evaluate apoptotic and non-apoptotic cell death. Results: RDD-19 and RDD-142 showed a greater dose-dependent cytotoxicity towards the hepatic tumor cell line HepG2 compared to the non-pathological hepatic cell line IHH. Both molecules caused two types of cell death, a caspase-dependent apoptosis, which was ascertained by a series of biochemical and morphological assays, and a caspase-independent death that was characterized by the induction of ER stress and autophagy. The strong increase of ubiquitinated proteins inside the cells suggested that the target of these molecules could be the proteasome and in silico molecular docking analysis that was used to support the plausibility of this hypothesis. Furthermore, cells treated with the two compounds displayed decreased levels of p-AKT, which interferes with cell survival and proliferation. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that two compounds, RDD-19 and RDD-142, have pleiotropic effects and that they may represent promising anticancer candidates.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11563/151990
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