During the winter 2003--2004 a serious disease was observed in protected tomato crops in Castrovillari, Reggio Calabria province, Southern Italy. Symptoms consisted in marginal leaf yellowing, leaf curling, plant stunting, flower abortion. The disease was detected in a group of greenhouses (about 10ha) where several tomato cultivars were grown hydroponically. The highest incidence of infection (60-100%) was observed in tomatoes grafted on Beaufort DRS tomato rootstock. Since the symptoms were similar to those described for Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), detection assays for these viruses were used. In DAS-ELISA positive results were obtained with a abroad-spectrums reagent combination (distributed by Bioreba AG) detecting TYLCV, TYLCSV, and other begomoviruses. When DNA probes were used in tissue print assays, positive reactions were obtained for TYLCSV, but not for TYLCV. The two probes consisted of digoxigenin-labelled DNAs representing the coat protein gene of either TYLCSV or TYLCV. Attempts to isolate the viral agent by mechanical inoculation failed, except in few cases where Potato virus Y and Tobacco mosaic virus were identified following transmission from symptomatic plants to herbaceous indicatorpplants. By contrast, grafting onto tomato seedlings always successfully transmitted the disease. In the Castrovillari area TYLCSV was not reported before. The rootstocks that nurseries used for grafting were obtained from Sicily, where the disease is endemic and both TYLCSV and TYLCV are widespread. Probably the grafted plantlets represented the primary source of infection from which subsequent diffusion by way of the vector Bemisia tabaci followed. In fact the vector had previously been detected in both the glasshouse-grown and open field tomato crops in Calabria region. TYLCV was previously reported in a different area of Calabria in 1991, but apparently it was an occasional outbreak, and B. tabaci was not detected. Since in the Castrovillari area surveyed in the present study tomato is grown throughtout the year in protected crops, the whitefly vector of the virus is present, and some natural hosts of the virus are found, it is feared that TYLCSV may become endemic, as already happened in Sicily, Sardinia, and Spain several years ago. In Spain and Sicily TYLCV, together with TYLCSV, was reported as the causal agent of very severe tomato crop losses. Therefore the danger exists that also TYLCV will reach this area, furthermore complicating the management of tomato crops.

Severe outbreaks of Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus in Calabria, Southern Italy

CRESCENZI, Aniello;
2004

Abstract

During the winter 2003--2004 a serious disease was observed in protected tomato crops in Castrovillari, Reggio Calabria province, Southern Italy. Symptoms consisted in marginal leaf yellowing, leaf curling, plant stunting, flower abortion. The disease was detected in a group of greenhouses (about 10ha) where several tomato cultivars were grown hydroponically. The highest incidence of infection (60-100%) was observed in tomatoes grafted on Beaufort DRS tomato rootstock. Since the symptoms were similar to those described for Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), detection assays for these viruses were used. In DAS-ELISA positive results were obtained with a abroad-spectrums reagent combination (distributed by Bioreba AG) detecting TYLCV, TYLCSV, and other begomoviruses. When DNA probes were used in tissue print assays, positive reactions were obtained for TYLCSV, but not for TYLCV. The two probes consisted of digoxigenin-labelled DNAs representing the coat protein gene of either TYLCSV or TYLCV. Attempts to isolate the viral agent by mechanical inoculation failed, except in few cases where Potato virus Y and Tobacco mosaic virus were identified following transmission from symptomatic plants to herbaceous indicatorpplants. By contrast, grafting onto tomato seedlings always successfully transmitted the disease. In the Castrovillari area TYLCSV was not reported before. The rootstocks that nurseries used for grafting were obtained from Sicily, where the disease is endemic and both TYLCSV and TYLCV are widespread. Probably the grafted plantlets represented the primary source of infection from which subsequent diffusion by way of the vector Bemisia tabaci followed. In fact the vector had previously been detected in both the glasshouse-grown and open field tomato crops in Calabria region. TYLCV was previously reported in a different area of Calabria in 1991, but apparently it was an occasional outbreak, and B. tabaci was not detected. Since in the Castrovillari area surveyed in the present study tomato is grown throughtout the year in protected crops, the whitefly vector of the virus is present, and some natural hosts of the virus are found, it is feared that TYLCSV may become endemic, as already happened in Sicily, Sardinia, and Spain several years ago. In Spain and Sicily TYLCV, together with TYLCSV, was reported as the causal agent of very severe tomato crop losses. Therefore the danger exists that also TYLCV will reach this area, furthermore complicating the management of tomato crops.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11563/5208
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