Fake news, which can be defined as intentionally and verifiably false news, has a strong influence on critical aspects of our society. Manual fact-checking is a widely adopted approach used to counteract the negative effects of fake news spreading. However, manual fact-checking is not sufficient when analysing the huge volume of newly created information. Moreover, the number of labeled datasets is limited, humans are not particularly reliable labelers and databases are mostly in English and focused on political news. To solve these issues state-of-the-art machine learning models have been used to automatically identify fake news. However, the high amount of models and the heterogeneity of features used in literature often represents a boundary for researchers trying to improve model performances. For this reason, in this systematic review, a taxonomy of machine learning and deep learning models and features adopted in Content-Based Fake News Detection is proposed and their performance is compared over the analysed works. To our knowledge, our contribution is the first attempt at identifying, on average, the best-performing models and features over multiple datasets/topics tested in all the reviewed works. Finally, challenges and opportunities in this research field are described with the aim of indicating areas where further research is needed.

Content-Based Fake News Detection With Machine and Deep Learning: a Systematic Review

Capuano N.;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Fake news, which can be defined as intentionally and verifiably false news, has a strong influence on critical aspects of our society. Manual fact-checking is a widely adopted approach used to counteract the negative effects of fake news spreading. However, manual fact-checking is not sufficient when analysing the huge volume of newly created information. Moreover, the number of labeled datasets is limited, humans are not particularly reliable labelers and databases are mostly in English and focused on political news. To solve these issues state-of-the-art machine learning models have been used to automatically identify fake news. However, the high amount of models and the heterogeneity of features used in literature often represents a boundary for researchers trying to improve model performances. For this reason, in this systematic review, a taxonomy of machine learning and deep learning models and features adopted in Content-Based Fake News Detection is proposed and their performance is compared over the analysed works. To our knowledge, our contribution is the first attempt at identifying, on average, the best-performing models and features over multiple datasets/topics tested in all the reviewed works. Finally, challenges and opportunities in this research field are described with the aim of indicating areas where further research is needed.
2023
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11563/174976
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