Photochemistry studies can be helpful in assessing the environmental fate of chemicals. Photochemical reactions lead to the formation of by-products that can exhibit different toxicological properties from the original compound. For this reason the photochemical behavior of the herbicide acifluorfen (5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitrobenzoic acid) in the presence of different solvents was studied. Photochemical reactions were carried out using a high-pressure mercury arc and a solar simulator. Kinetic parameters and quantum yields were determined. The identification of photoproducts was performed by mass spectrometry and [1H] nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Nitrofluorfen, hydroxy-nitrofluorfen, 2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenol, 5-trifluoromethyl-5'-nitrodibenzofuran, and other derivatives were identified. The photochemical reactions were also carried out in the presence of either a singlet or a triplet quencher, and in the presence of either a radical initiator or a radical inhibitor. Substances used as inhibitors of the excited levels T1 and S1 showed that photodegradation of acifluorfen begins from a singlet state S1 through a pi,pi* transition. The role of free radicals in the photodegradation of acifluorfen was determined and a radical mechanism was proposed. Toxicity tests against Daphnia magna Strauss showed that acifluorfen was not toxic at a concentration of 0.1 mM; however, photoproducts formed after 36 h of UV exposure of the herbicide induced a remarkable toxicity to the test organism.
|Titolo:||Photochemistry and photoinduced toxicity of Acifluorfen, a diphenyl-ether herbicide|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2002|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo su Rivista|