The 21st century will be remembered as the century of the Covid-19 pandemic, a catastrophic event that is having a devastating impact on the lives of all humanity. An unprecedented health emergency that is hitting hard all sectors of the global economy, having caused an exceptional shock on supply and demand, but also a profound situation of uncertainty that will lead to a reduction in consumption of goods and services (Boone et al., 2020 Gössling, Scott & Hall, 2020). The United Nations World Tourism Organization (2020) argues that “tourism is one of the most affected sectors", being highly vulnerable to disturbances caused by natural events in terms of localized phenomena such as earthquakes, fires, volcanic explosions, tsunamis or floods, as well as global events such as disease pandemics (Ma et al., 2020; Butler, 2017; Laws, Prideaux & Chon, 2007; Ritchie, 2004, 2009). According to Rogerson and Baum (2020) the COVID-19 epidemic is generating profound changes in both the demand and supply of tourism. On the one hand, concerns about personal health and safety become accelerating factors in the process of choosing tourists. On the other hand, the blockage of flows, the closure of borders, travel and mobility restrictions, isolation of communities, and social distancing, is putting the tourism industry in front of an unprecedented challenge in a very short time, requiring a revision of business models (Bartik et al., 2020; Chia-Lin Chang et al. 2020; Cooper & Alderman, 2020; Hall et al., 2020; Jamal & Budke, 2020). At the same time, as some authors underlined (e.g. Sigala, 2020), if the tourism crisis is a result of the pandemic, it is also true that the uncontrolled development of tourism is one of the cause of the current disease:it has contributed to increasing the level of global interconnections; it has generated pollution, and waste, acting negatively on climate change; it has contributed to put the superiority of the values of capitalism in the decision-making process of people and companies, as well as in political formulations. In this context, the Mediterranean region is among the most affected by the crisis, especially the countries located on both sides , which represent 1/3 of the overall income of international tourism (EU Neighbours South, 2020). In these areas, rethinking tourism represents a necessity for a sector of vital importance for local communities and small businesses. It is, therefore, essential to start a process of redefinition and re-thinking of the future of tourism for the countries of the Mediterranean region, if they want to remain competitive in the global scenario (Ateljevic, 2020; Baum & Hai, 2020; Bianchi, 2020; Everingham & Chassagne, 2020; Huijbens, 2020; Ioannides & Gyamóthi, 2020; Tremblay-Huet, 2020; Romagosa 2020; Tomassini & Carvagnaro 2020; Carr, 2020; Higgins-Desbiolles, 2020). However, in order to seize concretely the opportunities of this historical moment it is necessary to redesign the model of tourism development and prepare tourism recovery plans in order to support the transition towards more sustainable and resilient tourism economies, coherently to the UN Sustainable Development Goals and “the ability to satisfy the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to satisfy their own needs" (World Commission on Environment and Development 1987, p.43). According to this approach, tourism should be critically reconsidered by putting at the center the needs of all stakeholders and at the same time restart in compliance with the triple bottom line that will promote a structural transformation of the sector, a more solid and sustainable development, reinvigorating trust, restoring the environment and promoting institutional innovation (Brouder et al., 2020). On this point, two opposite approaches have been proposed in the scientific literature. Some authors (Gössling et al., 2020; Rogerson & Baum 2020) underline the expectations of companies to return "as normal" and to compensate for turnover losses through financial measures offered by various governments. Hall et al. (2020), for example, highlight, at this stage, the importance of the resilience of the tourism business and the political intervention that can support the recovery, without any commitment from stakeholders to sustainable climate change mitigation requirements. The resilience of tourism will depend on the level of consumer confidence, the government's economic interventions and restrictions on mobility, social distance and isolation requirements. On the contrary, some scholars explain how the pandemic has contributed to the growth of a "global consciousness" that is more in harmony with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (Galvani et al., 2020). To them, the crisis offers a "moment of transformation" and an opportunity to better address the objectives of inclusion, sustainability and responsibility. In this perspective, Ioannides & Gyamóthi (2020) see the crisis as an opportunity to escape the unsustainable trajectory of pre-COVID global tourism and offers the prospect of a community-centered framework as a potential mechanism for tourism growth (Higgins-Desbiolles, 2020). Embracing this perspective, major players in the hospitality sector have underlined their commitment to a global transition towards a more sustainable and resilient future (Ioannides & Gyimóthy, 2020). The future development of tourism should, on the one hand, consider various environmental aspects such as pollution, the ecosystem and biodiversity, the use of natural resources, recreational activities and waste management; on the other hand, it should aim at ensuring a social impact, i.e. maximizing the welfare and quality of life of citizens. Rogerson & Baum (2020) point out that a transformation of tourism in this direction implies a commitment of all actors to equity (Benjamin et al., 2020), a research towards transformative e-tourism (Gretzel et al., 2020) and the absorption of different cultural values that guarantee development at community level (Carr, 2020). The pandemic and the need to redesign tourism have also imposed a reset on the agendas of researchers and academics, so that they can generate new knowledge that can provide the tourism sector with an overview of how to transform its activities and make appropriate use of available resources. Drawing on previous conceptual and theoretical frameworks, it is possible to carry out studies that promote new ideas, models, approaches and paradigms. In this sense, scholars and researchers have a task of great responsibility: to contribute to re-orienting tourism - both from the point of view of supply and demand - towards a truly sustainable and resilient profile, suitable for a future in constant change and full of new challenges (Gursoy & Chi 2020; Ramagosa 2020; Sigala, 2020).

Tourism Destination Management in a Post-Pandemic Context (Tourism Security-Safety and Post Conflict Destinations

Micera R.
2021-01-01

Abstract

The 21st century will be remembered as the century of the Covid-19 pandemic, a catastrophic event that is having a devastating impact on the lives of all humanity. An unprecedented health emergency that is hitting hard all sectors of the global economy, having caused an exceptional shock on supply and demand, but also a profound situation of uncertainty that will lead to a reduction in consumption of goods and services (Boone et al., 2020 Gössling, Scott & Hall, 2020). The United Nations World Tourism Organization (2020) argues that “tourism is one of the most affected sectors", being highly vulnerable to disturbances caused by natural events in terms of localized phenomena such as earthquakes, fires, volcanic explosions, tsunamis or floods, as well as global events such as disease pandemics (Ma et al., 2020; Butler, 2017; Laws, Prideaux & Chon, 2007; Ritchie, 2004, 2009). According to Rogerson and Baum (2020) the COVID-19 epidemic is generating profound changes in both the demand and supply of tourism. On the one hand, concerns about personal health and safety become accelerating factors in the process of choosing tourists. On the other hand, the blockage of flows, the closure of borders, travel and mobility restrictions, isolation of communities, and social distancing, is putting the tourism industry in front of an unprecedented challenge in a very short time, requiring a revision of business models (Bartik et al., 2020; Chia-Lin Chang et al. 2020; Cooper & Alderman, 2020; Hall et al., 2020; Jamal & Budke, 2020). At the same time, as some authors underlined (e.g. Sigala, 2020), if the tourism crisis is a result of the pandemic, it is also true that the uncontrolled development of tourism is one of the cause of the current disease:it has contributed to increasing the level of global interconnections; it has generated pollution, and waste, acting negatively on climate change; it has contributed to put the superiority of the values of capitalism in the decision-making process of people and companies, as well as in political formulations. In this context, the Mediterranean region is among the most affected by the crisis, especially the countries located on both sides , which represent 1/3 of the overall income of international tourism (EU Neighbours South, 2020). In these areas, rethinking tourism represents a necessity for a sector of vital importance for local communities and small businesses. It is, therefore, essential to start a process of redefinition and re-thinking of the future of tourism for the countries of the Mediterranean region, if they want to remain competitive in the global scenario (Ateljevic, 2020; Baum & Hai, 2020; Bianchi, 2020; Everingham & Chassagne, 2020; Huijbens, 2020; Ioannides & Gyamóthi, 2020; Tremblay-Huet, 2020; Romagosa 2020; Tomassini & Carvagnaro 2020; Carr, 2020; Higgins-Desbiolles, 2020). However, in order to seize concretely the opportunities of this historical moment it is necessary to redesign the model of tourism development and prepare tourism recovery plans in order to support the transition towards more sustainable and resilient tourism economies, coherently to the UN Sustainable Development Goals and “the ability to satisfy the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to satisfy their own needs" (World Commission on Environment and Development 1987, p.43). According to this approach, tourism should be critically reconsidered by putting at the center the needs of all stakeholders and at the same time restart in compliance with the triple bottom line that will promote a structural transformation of the sector, a more solid and sustainable development, reinvigorating trust, restoring the environment and promoting institutional innovation (Brouder et al., 2020). On this point, two opposite approaches have been proposed in the scientific literature. Some authors (Gössling et al., 2020; Rogerson & Baum 2020) underline the expectations of companies to return "as normal" and to compensate for turnover losses through financial measures offered by various governments. Hall et al. (2020), for example, highlight, at this stage, the importance of the resilience of the tourism business and the political intervention that can support the recovery, without any commitment from stakeholders to sustainable climate change mitigation requirements. The resilience of tourism will depend on the level of consumer confidence, the government's economic interventions and restrictions on mobility, social distance and isolation requirements. On the contrary, some scholars explain how the pandemic has contributed to the growth of a "global consciousness" that is more in harmony with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (Galvani et al., 2020). To them, the crisis offers a "moment of transformation" and an opportunity to better address the objectives of inclusion, sustainability and responsibility. In this perspective, Ioannides & Gyamóthi (2020) see the crisis as an opportunity to escape the unsustainable trajectory of pre-COVID global tourism and offers the prospect of a community-centered framework as a potential mechanism for tourism growth (Higgins-Desbiolles, 2020). Embracing this perspective, major players in the hospitality sector have underlined their commitment to a global transition towards a more sustainable and resilient future (Ioannides & Gyimóthy, 2020). The future development of tourism should, on the one hand, consider various environmental aspects such as pollution, the ecosystem and biodiversity, the use of natural resources, recreational activities and waste management; on the other hand, it should aim at ensuring a social impact, i.e. maximizing the welfare and quality of life of citizens. Rogerson & Baum (2020) point out that a transformation of tourism in this direction implies a commitment of all actors to equity (Benjamin et al., 2020), a research towards transformative e-tourism (Gretzel et al., 2020) and the absorption of different cultural values that guarantee development at community level (Carr, 2020). The pandemic and the need to redesign tourism have also imposed a reset on the agendas of researchers and academics, so that they can generate new knowledge that can provide the tourism sector with an overview of how to transform its activities and make appropriate use of available resources. Drawing on previous conceptual and theoretical frameworks, it is possible to carry out studies that promote new ideas, models, approaches and paradigms. In this sense, scholars and researchers have a task of great responsibility: to contribute to re-orienting tourism - both from the point of view of supply and demand - towards a truly sustainable and resilient profile, suitable for a future in constant change and full of new challenges (Gursoy & Chi 2020; Ramagosa 2020; Sigala, 2020).
2021
978-1-80071-512-7
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11563/174773
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