Radicinin is a phytotoxic dihydropyranopyran-4,5-dione isolated from the culture filtrates of Cochliobolus australiensis, a phytopathogenic fungus of the invasive weed buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris). Radicinin proved to have interesting potential as a natural herbicide. Being interested in elucidating the mechanism of action and considering radicinin is produced in small quantities by C. australiensis, we opted to use (+/-)-3-deoxyradicinin, a synthetic analogue of radicinin that is available in larger quantities and shows radicinin-like phytotoxic activities. To obtain information about subcellular targets and mechanism(s) of action of the toxin, the study was carried out by using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), which, apart from its economic relevance, has become a model plant species for physiological and molecular studies. Results of biochemical assays showed that (+/-)-3-deoxyradicinin administration to leaves induced chlorosis, ion leakage, hydrogen peroxide production, and membrane lipid peroxidation. Remarkably, the compound determined the uncontrolled opening of stomata, which, in turn, resulted in plant wilting. Confocal microscopy analysis of protoplasts treated with (+/-)-3-deoxyradicinin ascertained that the toxin targeted chloroplasts, eliciting an overproduction of reactive singlet oxygen species. This oxidative stress status was related by qRT-PCR experiments to the activation of transcription of genes of a chloroplast-specific pathway of programmed cell death.

(±)-3-Deoxyradicinin Induces Stomata Opening and Chloroplast Oxidative Stress in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

Scafato, Patrizia;Superchi, Stefano;Evidente, Antonio;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Radicinin is a phytotoxic dihydropyranopyran-4,5-dione isolated from the culture filtrates of Cochliobolus australiensis, a phytopathogenic fungus of the invasive weed buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris). Radicinin proved to have interesting potential as a natural herbicide. Being interested in elucidating the mechanism of action and considering radicinin is produced in small quantities by C. australiensis, we opted to use (+/-)-3-deoxyradicinin, a synthetic analogue of radicinin that is available in larger quantities and shows radicinin-like phytotoxic activities. To obtain information about subcellular targets and mechanism(s) of action of the toxin, the study was carried out by using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), which, apart from its economic relevance, has become a model plant species for physiological and molecular studies. Results of biochemical assays showed that (+/-)-3-deoxyradicinin administration to leaves induced chlorosis, ion leakage, hydrogen peroxide production, and membrane lipid peroxidation. Remarkably, the compound determined the uncontrolled opening of stomata, which, in turn, resulted in plant wilting. Confocal microscopy analysis of protoplasts treated with (+/-)-3-deoxyradicinin ascertained that the toxin targeted chloroplasts, eliciting an overproduction of reactive singlet oxygen species. This oxidative stress status was related by qRT-PCR experiments to the activation of transcription of genes of a chloroplast-specific pathway of programmed cell death.
2023
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11563/174115
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