S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) is a coenzyme and the most commonly used methyl-group donor for the modification of metabolites, DNA, RNA and proteins. SAM biosynthesis and SAM regeneration from the methylation reaction product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH) take place in the cytoplasm. Therefore, the intramitochondrial SAM-dependent methyltransferases require the import of SAM and export of SAH for recycling. Orthologous mitochondrial transporters belonging to the mitochondrial carrier family have been identified to catalyze this antiport transport step: Sam5p in yeast, SLC25A26 (SAMC) in humans, and SAMC1-2 in plants. In mitochondria SAM is used by a vast number of enzymes implicated in the following processes: the regulation of replication, transcription, translation, and enzymatic activities; the maturation and assembly of mitochondrial tRNAs, ribosomes and protein complexes; and the biosynthesis of cofactors, such as ubiquinone, lipoate, and molybdopterin. Mutations in SLC25A26 and mitochondrial SAM-dependent enzymes have been found to cause human diseases, which emphasizes the physiological importance of these proteins.

Mitochondrial transport and metabolism of the major methyl donor and versatile cofactor S-adenosylmethionine, and related diseases: A review†

Monne M.;
2022-01-01

Abstract

S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) is a coenzyme and the most commonly used methyl-group donor for the modification of metabolites, DNA, RNA and proteins. SAM biosynthesis and SAM regeneration from the methylation reaction product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH) take place in the cytoplasm. Therefore, the intramitochondrial SAM-dependent methyltransferases require the import of SAM and export of SAH for recycling. Orthologous mitochondrial transporters belonging to the mitochondrial carrier family have been identified to catalyze this antiport transport step: Sam5p in yeast, SLC25A26 (SAMC) in humans, and SAMC1-2 in plants. In mitochondria SAM is used by a vast number of enzymes implicated in the following processes: the regulation of replication, transcription, translation, and enzymatic activities; the maturation and assembly of mitochondrial tRNAs, ribosomes and protein complexes; and the biosynthesis of cofactors, such as ubiquinone, lipoate, and molybdopterin. Mutations in SLC25A26 and mitochondrial SAM-dependent enzymes have been found to cause human diseases, which emphasizes the physiological importance of these proteins.
2022
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11563/166837
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