The aim of this study was to determine the response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Romsum HS90) to salinity in terms of gas exchange, ionic and water relations, and growth. Experiments were carried out in the glasshouse, where sunflower plants were exposed to increasing salinity levels using water with a wide range of electrical conductivity (0.39–20 dS m–1) to provide different degrees of salt stress. The CO2 assimilation rate (A), stomatal conductance and plant aboveground dry weight (DW) significantly decreased as electrical conductivity of the soil increased. The decline in photosynthesis measured in response to salt stress was proportionally greater than the decline in transpiration, resulting in a reduction of water use efficiency, at both the leaf and whole-plant levels. Among the factors inhibiting photosynthetic activity, those of a non-stomatal nature had a greater effect. In particular, an analysis of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate vs intercellular CO2 concentration (A vs Ci curves) indicated a reduction in activity of Rubisco (EC 4.1.1.39) as salinity levels increased. Under severe salt-stress conditions, chlorophyll fluorescence showed a slowing of electron transport at the PSII level. Salt accumulation in the rhizosphere caused a reduction in tissue water status that was partly associated with a decline in osmotic potential (Ψπ). Leaf ionic concentration was clearly correlated with values of leaf Ψπ. However, leaf ionic concentration showed discontinuous distribution between younger and older leaves, reflecting a strategy of plants to preserve younger and more metabolically-active leaves from accumulating salt to toxic levels.

Effects of salinity on gas exchange, water relation and growth of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

RIVELLI, Anna Rita;LOVELLI, Stella;PERNIOLA, Michele
2002-01-01

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Romsum HS90) to salinity in terms of gas exchange, ionic and water relations, and growth. Experiments were carried out in the glasshouse, where sunflower plants were exposed to increasing salinity levels using water with a wide range of electrical conductivity (0.39–20 dS m–1) to provide different degrees of salt stress. The CO2 assimilation rate (A), stomatal conductance and plant aboveground dry weight (DW) significantly decreased as electrical conductivity of the soil increased. The decline in photosynthesis measured in response to salt stress was proportionally greater than the decline in transpiration, resulting in a reduction of water use efficiency, at both the leaf and whole-plant levels. Among the factors inhibiting photosynthetic activity, those of a non-stomatal nature had a greater effect. In particular, an analysis of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate vs intercellular CO2 concentration (A vs Ci curves) indicated a reduction in activity of Rubisco (EC 4.1.1.39) as salinity levels increased. Under severe salt-stress conditions, chlorophyll fluorescence showed a slowing of electron transport at the PSII level. Salt accumulation in the rhizosphere caused a reduction in tissue water status that was partly associated with a decline in osmotic potential (Ψπ). Leaf ionic concentration was clearly correlated with values of leaf Ψπ. However, leaf ionic concentration showed discontinuous distribution between younger and older leaves, reflecting a strategy of plants to preserve younger and more metabolically-active leaves from accumulating salt to toxic levels.
2002
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11563/16616
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