Field trials were conducted at traditional Mediterranean olive agro-ecosystems grown at two locations (Italy –IT, Greece –GR). Groves were managed for many years using sustainable (S, cover crops, compost application, mulching of pruning biomass) or conventional (C) practices (e.g., soil tillage, burning of pruning residuals). The IT grove was rainfed (RAIN) while the GR was irrigated (IRR). This study examined the seasonal variation of soil CO2 emission (Rs) to explore the effect of the management options (C, S) on Rs at both sites. The second aim was to test the hypothesis that the seasonal Rs is differentially modulated by soil temperature and moisture, namely that (i) soil moisture limits Rs when it is below the lower limit of the readily available water (RAWLLim) and (ii) soil temperature above a threshold (max_T) reduces Rs even if soil moisture is non limiting. On the whole-season basis, the mean Rs rate at the rainfed site was 2.17 ± 0.06 (SE) at CRAIN and 2.32 ± 0.06 μmol CO2 m−2 s–1 at SRAIN plot, while at the irrigated site Rs was about 3.64 ± 0.11 (CIRR) and 4.05 ± 0.15 μmol CO2 m−2 s–1 (SIRR). The seasonal oscillation of Rs was consistent across locations and partitionable in three periods according to DOY (Day of Year) interval: Phase I (DOY 20–103 –GR; 20–118 -IT), Phase II (DOY 141÷257, GR; 142–257, IT) and Phase III (DOY 291–357, GR; 286–350, -IT). Pooling all the Rs data across sites and managements, max_T was ∼ 20 °C discriminating a differential response of Rs when soil moisture was < or > RAWLLim. These differential modulations exerted by temperature and moisture were integrated into a conditional model developed with a repeated random subsampling cross-validation procedure to effectively (R2 = 0.84) predict Rs. This paper mechanistically describes the interaction of the environment (soil moisture and temperature) and the management options (S, C) under various moisture conditions on Rs and would support carbon flux accounting procedures (e.g., regulating ecosystem services) tailored to the estimation of sink/source capability of traditional olive agro-ecosystem within environmental-friendly agricultural domains.

Management options influence seasonal CO2 soil emissions in Mediterranean olive ecosystems

Montanaro G.
;
Dichio B.;Nuzzo V.
2023-01-01

Abstract

Field trials were conducted at traditional Mediterranean olive agro-ecosystems grown at two locations (Italy –IT, Greece –GR). Groves were managed for many years using sustainable (S, cover crops, compost application, mulching of pruning biomass) or conventional (C) practices (e.g., soil tillage, burning of pruning residuals). The IT grove was rainfed (RAIN) while the GR was irrigated (IRR). This study examined the seasonal variation of soil CO2 emission (Rs) to explore the effect of the management options (C, S) on Rs at both sites. The second aim was to test the hypothesis that the seasonal Rs is differentially modulated by soil temperature and moisture, namely that (i) soil moisture limits Rs when it is below the lower limit of the readily available water (RAWLLim) and (ii) soil temperature above a threshold (max_T) reduces Rs even if soil moisture is non limiting. On the whole-season basis, the mean Rs rate at the rainfed site was 2.17 ± 0.06 (SE) at CRAIN and 2.32 ± 0.06 μmol CO2 m−2 s–1 at SRAIN plot, while at the irrigated site Rs was about 3.64 ± 0.11 (CIRR) and 4.05 ± 0.15 μmol CO2 m−2 s–1 (SIRR). The seasonal oscillation of Rs was consistent across locations and partitionable in three periods according to DOY (Day of Year) interval: Phase I (DOY 20–103 –GR; 20–118 -IT), Phase II (DOY 141÷257, GR; 142–257, IT) and Phase III (DOY 291–357, GR; 286–350, -IT). Pooling all the Rs data across sites and managements, max_T was ∼ 20 °C discriminating a differential response of Rs when soil moisture was < or > RAWLLim. These differential modulations exerted by temperature and moisture were integrated into a conditional model developed with a repeated random subsampling cross-validation procedure to effectively (R2 = 0.84) predict Rs. This paper mechanistically describes the interaction of the environment (soil moisture and temperature) and the management options (S, C) under various moisture conditions on Rs and would support carbon flux accounting procedures (e.g., regulating ecosystem services) tailored to the estimation of sink/source capability of traditional olive agro-ecosystem within environmental-friendly agricultural domains.
2023
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11563/164674
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