The recent global upsurge in anthropogenic activities has resulted in a decline in the quality of water. This by extension has resulted in increased ubiquity of water pollution in terms of sources. The application of traditional water quality assessment methods usually involves the use of conventional water quality parameters and guideline values. This may be associated with bias and errors during the computation of various sub-indices. Hence, to overcome this limitation, it is critical to have a visual appraisal of the water quality in terms of source and human health risks exposure for sustainable water resource management and informed decision-making. Therefore, the present study has integrated multiple water quality assessment indices, spatio-temporal, and statistical models to assess the suitability of fifty groundwater samples (n = 50) within the Firozabad industrial area for irrigation and drinking; as well as the likely health risks from oral intake and dermal contact by inhabitants. Electrical conductivity (mean = 1,576.6 μs/cm), total hardness (mean = 230.9 mg/L), dissolved sodium (mean = 305.1 mg/L) chloride (mean = 306.1 mg/L) and fluoride (mean = 1.52 mg/L) occurred in the water at concentrations above the recommended standards; attributed influxes from agricultural and industrial wastewater. The pollution index of groundwater and water quality index revealed that 100% of the groundwater samples are extremely polluted; this was also supported by the joint multivariate statistical analyses. The majority of the irrigational water quality indices (sodium adsorption ratio, Kelly’s Ratio, permeability index, percent sodium) revealed that the long-term use of the groundwater for irrigation in the area will result in reduced crop yield unless remedial measures are put in place. Higher Hazard index (HI > 1) for nitrate and fluoride ingestion was recorded in water for the children population compared to adult; an indication that the children population is more predisposed to health risks from the oral intake of water. Generally, risk levels from ingestion appear to increase in the western and north-eastern parts of the study area. From the findings of this study, it is highly recommended that adequate agricultural practices, land use, and water treatment regulatory strategies be put in place for water quality sustainability for enhanced agricultural production and human health protection.

Irrigation suitability and health risk assessment of groundwater resources in the Firozabad industrial area of north-central India: An integrated indexical, statistical, and geospatial approach

Scopa, Antonio
;
2023-01-01

Abstract

The recent global upsurge in anthropogenic activities has resulted in a decline in the quality of water. This by extension has resulted in increased ubiquity of water pollution in terms of sources. The application of traditional water quality assessment methods usually involves the use of conventional water quality parameters and guideline values. This may be associated with bias and errors during the computation of various sub-indices. Hence, to overcome this limitation, it is critical to have a visual appraisal of the water quality in terms of source and human health risks exposure for sustainable water resource management and informed decision-making. Therefore, the present study has integrated multiple water quality assessment indices, spatio-temporal, and statistical models to assess the suitability of fifty groundwater samples (n = 50) within the Firozabad industrial area for irrigation and drinking; as well as the likely health risks from oral intake and dermal contact by inhabitants. Electrical conductivity (mean = 1,576.6 μs/cm), total hardness (mean = 230.9 mg/L), dissolved sodium (mean = 305.1 mg/L) chloride (mean = 306.1 mg/L) and fluoride (mean = 1.52 mg/L) occurred in the water at concentrations above the recommended standards; attributed influxes from agricultural and industrial wastewater. The pollution index of groundwater and water quality index revealed that 100% of the groundwater samples are extremely polluted; this was also supported by the joint multivariate statistical analyses. The majority of the irrigational water quality indices (sodium adsorption ratio, Kelly’s Ratio, permeability index, percent sodium) revealed that the long-term use of the groundwater for irrigation in the area will result in reduced crop yield unless remedial measures are put in place. Higher Hazard index (HI > 1) for nitrate and fluoride ingestion was recorded in water for the children population compared to adult; an indication that the children population is more predisposed to health risks from the oral intake of water. Generally, risk levels from ingestion appear to increase in the western and north-eastern parts of the study area. From the findings of this study, it is highly recommended that adequate agricultural practices, land use, and water treatment regulatory strategies be put in place for water quality sustainability for enhanced agricultural production and human health protection.
2023
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11563/164455
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