The investigation focused on the deterioration of the walls in the hypogeum of "San Pietro Barisano" rupestrian church, located in the Matera-Sassi (Southern Italy), one of the UNESCO World Heritage sites. The study evaluated the biocide activity of a mixture of natural glycoalkaloids (G.A.s) extracted from the unripe fruit of Solanum nigrum and applied to clean a hypogeum wall surface in the church affected by green patinas. The analyzed patina, collected before treatment and, at pre-established times, after treatment, showed changes in chemical composition detected by XPS, accompanied by visible discoloration and biological activity variation. The biocidal action of the glycoalkaloids mixture, directly employed on the wall surface, was effective after about four weeks for most patina colonizers but not for the fungal species that can migrate and survive in the porosities of the calcarenite. Consequently, the cleaning procedure requires the integration of fungicidal actions, combined with the consolidation of the surfaces, to obtain complete bioremediation and avoid subsequent biological recolonization. SEM images and associated microanalysis of pretreated green patina have revealed the biocalcogenity of some autochthonous microorganisms, thus preluding to their eventual isolation and reintroduction on the wall surface to act as consolidants once the bio-cleaning phase has been completed.

The bio-patina on a hypogeum wall of the Matera-Sassi rupestrian church "San Pietro Barisano" before and after treatment with glycoalkaloids

Sabino Aurelio Bufo
;
Stefania Mirela Mang
Formal Analysis
;
Ippolito Camele
Investigation
;
Anna Maria Salvi
Investigation
;
Laura Scrano
Supervision
2023-01-01

Abstract

The investigation focused on the deterioration of the walls in the hypogeum of "San Pietro Barisano" rupestrian church, located in the Matera-Sassi (Southern Italy), one of the UNESCO World Heritage sites. The study evaluated the biocide activity of a mixture of natural glycoalkaloids (G.A.s) extracted from the unripe fruit of Solanum nigrum and applied to clean a hypogeum wall surface in the church affected by green patinas. The analyzed patina, collected before treatment and, at pre-established times, after treatment, showed changes in chemical composition detected by XPS, accompanied by visible discoloration and biological activity variation. The biocidal action of the glycoalkaloids mixture, directly employed on the wall surface, was effective after about four weeks for most patina colonizers but not for the fungal species that can migrate and survive in the porosities of the calcarenite. Consequently, the cleaning procedure requires the integration of fungicidal actions, combined with the consolidation of the surfaces, to obtain complete bioremediation and avoid subsequent biological recolonization. SEM images and associated microanalysis of pretreated green patina have revealed the biocalcogenity of some autochthonous microorganisms, thus preluding to their eventual isolation and reintroduction on the wall surface to act as consolidants once the bio-cleaning phase has been completed.
2023
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11563/162487
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