Over the years, the attention towards the role of phytochemicals in dietary natural products in reducing the risk of developing cancer is rising. Cancer is the second primary cause of mortality worldwide. The current therapeutic options for cancer treatment are surgical excision, immunotherapy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Unfortunately, in case of metastases or chemoresistance, the treatment options become very limited. Despite the advances in medical and pharmaceutical sciences, the impact of available treatments on survival is not satisfactory. Recently, natural products are a great deal of interest as potential anti-cancer agents. Among them, phenolic compounds have gained a great deal of interest, thanks to their anti-cancer activity. The present review focuses on the suppression of cancer by targeting BRCA gene expression using dietary polyphenols, as well as the clinical aspects of polyphenolic agents in cancer therapy. They regulate specific key processes involved in cancer progression and modulate the expression of oncogenic proteins, like p27, p21, and p53, which may lead to apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, inhibition of cell proliferation, and, consequently, cancer suppression. Thus, one of the mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer activity of phenolics involves the regulation of tumor suppressor genes. Among them, the BRCA genes, with the two forms (BRCA-1 and BRCA-2), play a pivotal role in cancer protection and prevention. BRCA germline mutations are associated with an increased risk of developing several types of cancers, including ovarian, breast, and prostate cancers. BRCA genes also play a key role in the sensitivity and response of cancer cells to specific pharmacological treatments. As the importance of BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 in reducing cancer invasiveness, repairing DNA damages, oncosoppression, and cell cycle checkpoint, their regulation by natural molecules has been examined.

Advances and challenges in cancer treatment and nutraceutical prevention: the possible role of dietary phenols in BRCA regulation

Fabiana Labanca;Luigi Milella
2021-01-01

Abstract

Over the years, the attention towards the role of phytochemicals in dietary natural products in reducing the risk of developing cancer is rising. Cancer is the second primary cause of mortality worldwide. The current therapeutic options for cancer treatment are surgical excision, immunotherapy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Unfortunately, in case of metastases or chemoresistance, the treatment options become very limited. Despite the advances in medical and pharmaceutical sciences, the impact of available treatments on survival is not satisfactory. Recently, natural products are a great deal of interest as potential anti-cancer agents. Among them, phenolic compounds have gained a great deal of interest, thanks to their anti-cancer activity. The present review focuses on the suppression of cancer by targeting BRCA gene expression using dietary polyphenols, as well as the clinical aspects of polyphenolic agents in cancer therapy. They regulate specific key processes involved in cancer progression and modulate the expression of oncogenic proteins, like p27, p21, and p53, which may lead to apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, inhibition of cell proliferation, and, consequently, cancer suppression. Thus, one of the mechanisms underlying the anti-cancer activity of phenolics involves the regulation of tumor suppressor genes. Among them, the BRCA genes, with the two forms (BRCA-1 and BRCA-2), play a pivotal role in cancer protection and prevention. BRCA germline mutations are associated with an increased risk of developing several types of cancers, including ovarian, breast, and prostate cancers. BRCA genes also play a key role in the sensitivity and response of cancer cells to specific pharmacological treatments. As the importance of BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 in reducing cancer invasiveness, repairing DNA damages, oncosoppression, and cell cycle checkpoint, their regulation by natural molecules has been examined.
2021
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11563/161457
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