The formation of N-nitroso-ciprofloxacin (CIP) was investigated both in wastewater treatment plants including nitrification/denitrification stages and in sludge slurry experiments under denitrifying conditions. The analysis of biological wastewater treatment plant effluents by Kendrick mass defect analysis and liquid chromatography - high resolution - mass spectrometry (LC[sbnd]HRMS) revealed the occurrence of N-nitroso-CIP and N-nitroso-hydrochlorothiazide at concentration levels of 34 ± 3 ng/L and 71 ± 6 ng/L, respectively. In laboratory experiments and dark conditions, produced N-nitroso-CIP concentrations reached a plateau during the course of biodegradation experiments. A mass balance was achieved after identification and quantification of several transformation products by LC[sbnd]HRMS. N-nitroso-CIP accounted for 14.3% of the initial CIP concentration (20 µg/L) and accumulated against time. The use of 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate and superoxide dismutase as scavengers for in situ production of nitric oxide and superoxide radical anion respectively, revealed that the mechanisms of formation of N-nitroso-CIP likely involved a nitrosation pathway through the formation of peroxynitrite and another one through codenitrification processes, even though the former one appeared to be prevalent. This work extended the possible sources of N-nitrosamines by including a formation pathway relying on nitric oxide reactivity with secondary amines under activated sludge treatment.

Nitric oxide reactivity accounts for N-nitroso-ciprofloxacin formation under nitrate-reducing conditions

Brienza M.;
2020

Abstract

The formation of N-nitroso-ciprofloxacin (CIP) was investigated both in wastewater treatment plants including nitrification/denitrification stages and in sludge slurry experiments under denitrifying conditions. The analysis of biological wastewater treatment plant effluents by Kendrick mass defect analysis and liquid chromatography - high resolution - mass spectrometry (LC[sbnd]HRMS) revealed the occurrence of N-nitroso-CIP and N-nitroso-hydrochlorothiazide at concentration levels of 34 ± 3 ng/L and 71 ± 6 ng/L, respectively. In laboratory experiments and dark conditions, produced N-nitroso-CIP concentrations reached a plateau during the course of biodegradation experiments. A mass balance was achieved after identification and quantification of several transformation products by LC[sbnd]HRMS. N-nitroso-CIP accounted for 14.3% of the initial CIP concentration (20 µg/L) and accumulated against time. The use of 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate and superoxide dismutase as scavengers for in situ production of nitric oxide and superoxide radical anion respectively, revealed that the mechanisms of formation of N-nitroso-CIP likely involved a nitrosation pathway through the formation of peroxynitrite and another one through codenitrification processes, even though the former one appeared to be prevalent. This work extended the possible sources of N-nitrosamines by including a formation pathway relying on nitric oxide reactivity with secondary amines under activated sludge treatment.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11563/143902
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