An appropriate orchard management is a necessary condition for high quality production with respect to environmental aspects such as a) organic matter depletion, which leads to the desertification phenomenon; b) water shortage; c) soil alkalinization and salinization processes; d) aquifers pollution; e) nitrogen and carbon gas emissions. In this paper we discuss the most appropriate practices to preserve soil fertility and improve the efficiency of water and mineral resources. Soil incorporation of green manure, pruned material and mature compost can play an interesting role in reducing the chemical inputs in agriculture, improving the organic matter content of the soil and restoring its biological fertility. As regards an efficient use of water, it is important to consider: training system, plant architecture and the different distribution of light in the canopy, as well as the irrigation system and its management. The knowledge of the uptake of mineral elements and their partitioning in the different plant organs during the annual cycle, and reserves accumulation and mobilisation is necessary in order to synchronise the supply of nutrients with plant requests. The use of fertigation is recommended, as it combines efficient use of water resources with rational use of fertilisers. Finally, referring to the present knowledge on the matter, we will point out topics in which it will be necessary to invest resources in the future research projects.

Orchard management to preserve soil fertility and improve the efficiency of water and mineral resources

XILOYANNIS, Cristos;DICHIO, Bartolomeo;CELANO, Giuseppe
2006

Abstract

An appropriate orchard management is a necessary condition for high quality production with respect to environmental aspects such as a) organic matter depletion, which leads to the desertification phenomenon; b) water shortage; c) soil alkalinization and salinization processes; d) aquifers pollution; e) nitrogen and carbon gas emissions. In this paper we discuss the most appropriate practices to preserve soil fertility and improve the efficiency of water and mineral resources. Soil incorporation of green manure, pruned material and mature compost can play an interesting role in reducing the chemical inputs in agriculture, improving the organic matter content of the soil and restoring its biological fertility. As regards an efficient use of water, it is important to consider: training system, plant architecture and the different distribution of light in the canopy, as well as the irrigation system and its management. The knowledge of the uptake of mineral elements and their partitioning in the different plant organs during the annual cycle, and reserves accumulation and mobilisation is necessary in order to synchronise the supply of nutrients with plant requests. The use of fertigation is recommended, as it combines efficient use of water resources with rational use of fertilisers. Finally, referring to the present knowledge on the matter, we will point out topics in which it will be necessary to invest resources in the future research projects.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11563/14214
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